0000011834 00000 n 0000002870 00000 n Uses. 0000083507 00000 n villosa distribution map", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Vicia_villosa&oldid=959281763, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 28 May 2020, at 00:41. 0000001280 00000 n 0000090813 00000 n Synonym(s): winter vetch, hairy vetch, woolly vetch, wooly vetch: Native Range: Europe and Asia Identification, Biology, Control and Management Resources Weed of the Week - USDA Forest Service; Selected Images from Invasive.org: View All Images at Invasive.org: Flower(s); Flowers of purple vetch (Vicia villosa). trailer [11], It is regulated in the state of Florida. These plants usually don't cause problems in healthy native prairies. Stems are vining and can grow up to 6 feet long. Hairy vetch is an annual or biennial spreading herb with climbing stems growing up to 3 feet long. 0000016121 00000 n Hairy vetch is one of the most winter hardy legumes. 0000003406 00000 n Vicia microphylla d'Urv. [10] Disadvantages of hairy vetch in production agriculture are related to the crop having a portion of hard seed and its tendency to shatter seed early in the season, leading to it remaining in the field as a weed later in the season. Hairy vetch has long trailing stems from 50 to 200 cm (20 to 79 in.) In California, it has been evaluated as an invasive plant but its impacts in wildlands are considered minor (Cal-IPC, 2015). Hairy vetch and common vetch are also frequently planted as a cover crop. Tufted Vetch is also a perennial where Hairy Vetch is mostly an annual. Hairy vetch is widely used by organic growers in the United States as a winter cover crop and in no-till farming, as it is both winter hardy and can fix as much as 200 lb/acre of atmospheric nitrogen. Hairy Vetch Seed. This can be a particular problem in wheat production. Research has shown that hairy vetch mulch can increase main crop disease resistance and prolong leaf photosynthesis of the following crop. Cow vetch and hairy vetch are invasive species. Cultural Control . 0000006505 00000 n Cover Crop. The tiny seeds within are ripe when the pods have turned black. [14] Despite being native to part of Europe it is considered an alien or invasive species in some European countries, such as Belgium, the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, and Spain. 0000005833 00000 n Hairy vetch is a winter-active legume which generally grows as an annual but can also be a biennial. Hairy vetch is not recommended as forage for domestic or farm animals. Purple flowers form in early to mid summer. Nitrogen, a critical nutrient required for plant growth, is often depleted by repeated cultivation, poor soil management and use of synthetic fertilizers and herbicides. Hairy Vetch (Vicia villosa) is a short term legume commonly used for cover crops in home gardens, weed suppression, erosion control, ground cover, green manure, pasture, silage and hay. DiTomaso. Control and Management: • Manual- Pull small infestations before seeds develop, to free native plants. 0000074263 00000 n 0000008628 00000 n Hairy Vetch is a winter annual weed in the bean family often grown as a cover crop or used as animal fodder. The species Vicia hirsuta is also called hairy vetch. 0000083278 00000 n Flowers of purple vetch (Vicia villosa). Leaves have 10-20 leaflets and terminate in tendrils. ), and is known as an excellent nitrogen fixer. Due to the vining, climbing habit of the plant, it is often sown in combination with rye so the rye may provide some support. winter vetch. Cow vetch and hairy vetch spread over other vegetation, smothering it. long. Hairy vetch (Vicia villosa) is a trailing winter annual, biennial, or summer annual weed that forms large mats of vegetation. It is a legume, grown as a forage crop, fodder crop, cover crop, and green manure. Though a good stand of this winter annual legume alone can provide good cover, it also can make a good companion species to ryegrass and, in particular, small grains. 0000007373 00000 n Hairy vetch is planted in the fall wherever it is grown. 0000083041 00000 n [15][16], "Invasive in Native Habitats of the Southern Willamette Valley", "Midwest Invasive Plant Network Midwest Invasive Plant List", "Invasive Plant Atlas of the United States — Vicia villosa", "Vicia villosa Roth ssp. John D. Byrd, Mississippi State University, Bugwood.org Steve Dewey, Utah State University, Bugwood.org They resemble those of a very small pea. Click on an acronym to view each weed list, or click here for a composite list of Weeds of the U.S. N'EAST: Uva, R.H., J.C. Neal,and J.M. 0000082799 00000 n Well-nodulated hairy vetch can enrich the soil with 60 to 120 lb/acre of nitrogen through nitrogen fixation. The vetch vegetation provides both nitrogen and an instant mulch that preserves moisture and keeps weeds from sprouting. An interesting feature of vetch is the presence of nectaries on the stipules (small lobes at the base of the leaves) of many of the species. HAIRY VETCH Vicia villosa Roth Plant Symbol = VIVI Contributed by: USDA NRCS Plant Materials Program Alternate Names winter vetch Uses Erosion control: Hairy vetch’s capacity to provide a heavy mulch aids in soil and water conservation. Hairy vetch performs well in rotations with conventional and no-till planted row crops. %PDF-1.4 %���� 0000001532 00000 n 0000004132 00000 n Vicia elegantissima Rouy Organic gardeners often plant hairy vetch (a nitrogen-fixing legume) as a companion plant to tomatoes, as an alternative to rotating crops in small growing areas. 1997. Vicia dasycarpa Ten. Colonies are typically found growing along river banks, meadows, prairies, shoulders of highways overpasses, along roads, edge of croplands and in abandoned fields and well as other disturbed and undisturbed areas. endstream endobj 7 0 obj<> endobj 8 0 obj<> endobj 9 0 obj<>/ColorSpace<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageC]/ExtGState<>>> endobj 10 0 obj<> endobj 11 0 obj<> endobj 12 0 obj<> endobj 13 0 obj<> endobj 14 0 obj<> endobj 15 0 obj[/ICCBased 26 0 R] endobj 16 0 obj<>stream Crown vetch, Securigera varia (invasive) – crown vetch flowers are clustered at the top of stalks as opposed to the flowers arranged along the stalk on cow and hairy vetch. [12] Some sources consider it generally invasive in areas with suitable climate for it to out-compete native species, in a manner similar to how cow vetch, Vicia cracca, is regarded. The flowers, borne in a dense one-sided spike, are violet and white to rose colored. 0000082576 00000 n [13] With both vetches, their agricultural usefulness is typically given precedence over concerns regarding potential ecological degradation. To utilize hairy vetch in smaller gardens or raised beds, the plants are seeded in the fall as usual, however, once they have reached maturity, they are cut and composted in separate bins or beds. It has a weak tap root that grows up to 60 to 90 cm (24 to 35 in.) Cow vetch and hairy vetch should be reported. It is by Howard F. Schwartz at Colorado State University. When it is time to plant tomatoes in the spring, the hairy vetch is cut to the ground and the tomato seedlings are planted in holes dug through the matted residue and stubble. 0000001784 00000 n Under most conditions a systemic herbicide produces better results than a contact herbicide. In these systems, the fall planted legume is either mechanically or chemically terminated 2 to 3 weeks prior to planting or under proper conditions it is terminated at planting. Hairy vetch is an annual or biennial, hardy, cool season agronomic legume, also commonly referred to as fodder vetch, winter vetch, or sand vetch. Vicia villosa, known as the hairy vetch, fodder vetch or winter vetch, is a plant native to some of Europe and western Asia. It is a legume, grown as a forage crop, fodder crop, cover crop, and green manure. It is normally seeded at 20 to 40 pounds per acre. %%EOF Hairy Vetch is the go-to crop when nitrogen production is at the top of your list for goals to achieve. Hairy vetch, (Vicia villosa), aka sand vetch or winter vetch, is the most winter-hardy of the vetches. 0000003028 00000 n Toxicity issues quickly arise, especially with non-ruminants, with excessive consumption. The leaves have long, soft hairs with 10 to 20 leaflets borne opposite each other and tendrils at the end. hairy vetch. 0000003372 00000 n The stems and leaves of hairy vetch are pubescent with tufts present at tips of stems. 0000007243 00000 n These include common vetch and hairy vetch mentioned above, American vetch (V. americana), tufted vetch (V. cracca), hedge vetch (V. sepium), and 4-seeded vetch (V. tetrasperma). Legume (Vicia villosa) This forage legume is also known as hairy vetch or winter vetch. This plant can be weedy or invasive according to the authoritative sources noted below.This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above. There are 4 recognized subspecies of V. villosa, 2 of which have been found in Minnesota, both weedy. X���H�" +C1�� C�-FFM��5�fL[��™j��0$0e2Y1~���4f�0ۼF]n"�q��{.0�f8,��p�a�_-�ь�) � �-������,��� � ��b 0000014223 00000 n It has a similar scrambling, climbing growth habit to common vetch and will survive throughout the winter. Cow vetch is very similar to hairy vetch (Vicia villosa), but is distinguished from the latter by its smooth stem. Please visit our sponsors . 0000008024 00000 n More photos. of nitrogen per acre to a following spring crop. Cow and hairy vetch can be problematic in prairie restoration sites or other disturbed areas. 0 Hairy vetch absorbs nitrogen from the air as it grows. 0000001356 00000 n Crown vetch (Securigera varia) A listed invasive plant in WisconsinLearn how to ID this plant in this short video. 0� ��8���3�u�]E�5��H��'�����2o��0����$}�ɽ�9S�"�p�� �8�NZ�Ҕ�B;H/mF����@��*�'Uf������ considered invasive in some areas. This will not only add expertise to your gardening hobby, but it will also help you understand its characteristics. 0000090997 00000 n Vicia pseudocracca Bertol. <<071D200125689B47811D7BE295FF241F>]>> Hairy vetch (Vicia villosa) is often used as a forage legume or cover crop throughout many temperate areas of the world, including the United States. Such a vigorous annual cover crop that it is considered invasive in much of the United States, non-GMO hairy vetch is a European heirloom and one of the most popular restorative crops grown in the garden. 0000009165 00000 n woolly vetch. Hairy vetch is very similar to tufted vetch (Vicia cracca), the most noticeable difference being that tufted vetch has a smooth stem. Hairy vetch’s capacity to provide a heavy mulch aids in soil and water conservation. [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9] It is also found in most Canadian provinces. Crown vetch has a leaflet at the tip of its leaves and does not have tendrils at the tip of its leaves as cow and hairy vetch do. By having the capability to produce 200+ lbs. This taproot will allow the vetch to thrive even in dry conditions. Legumes and seeds. 0000030158 00000 n �S�"]�q�j'�)�. The seed pods are 2 cm long and contain 6 to 8 seeds. Its primary benefit has been as “green manure”. of nitrogen, very few legumes can come close to the benefits hairy vetch can present. Although non-native, it occurs in all US states and is considered invasive by some states, such as Alaska, Florida, Georgia, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Oregon, and Washington state — as well as in Japan and some parts of Europe where it is not native. Hairy vetch fixes large amounts of nitrogen (N) that help meet N needs of the following crop, protects soil from erosion, helps improve soil tilth, and provides weed control during its vigorous growth in the spring and when left as a dead mulch at the soil surface. startxref Hairy vetch can alter habitat structure and reduce the abundance of native plants through competition for space. 0000000016 00000 n Hairy Vetch. 0000091284 00000 n 0000090584 00000 n Being more winter hardy than common vetch, hairy vetch has the potential to withstand temperatures in excess of 5F with no cover. Vicia ambigua Guss. Later seeded vetch grown as a cover crop for green manure, will supply a smaller amount of N. Vetches are also grown for pasture. Crop: Hairy vetch is grown as a cover preceding such crops as safflower, corn, tobacco, cotton, rice, tomatoes, and other vegetables. A secondary benefit of vetch is its root system. When planted alone as a winter cover crop in annual vegetable rotations, it can provide as much as 110 lbs. Vicia villosa, known as the hairy vetch, fodder vetch or winter vetch, is a plant native to some of Europe and western Asia. Plants are useful to human beings in innumerable ways. Every gardener must look for the required information on this plant before planting it. Toxicity: The entire plant is toxic. Applications Soil Stabilization & Erosion Control. Unripened seeds are swollen and have a green tint to them, but they unswell when they become ripe. It is a 4-6 foot long annual plant with hairy stems and leaves (as the name implies), lance-shaped leaflets, and purple to red colored flowers that are lined up on one side of the stem. 0000082355 00000 n Hairy vetch is a winter annual legume that offers a number of potential benefits to row-crop or livestock producers when used as a winter cover crop. Where to buy native seed and plants ↓ Map of native plant purveyors in the upper midwest. xref E";)�&��u7��sz�;P���܉�_e�P�"�%��Kf��,WXz�r��6�B���n_�W i>��2��V>��쾹aZ �KS���cR�o�t�/�� �Q0��b1߂�B��}s�!g��R��8�6��X���.� �AF>�6+�?6�\oߧ�꽥��t��V���h��a�:�b>�ׄ?t��='Zfy1}���x^��^l�b��+�$fZ%�=����x���wh��ŀ�|�\��7�$-A�o�|��i=Du0@�0��Q��t��oJ?7�� �uZ�!3]\���&��RX�mXq�Qt�c? Hairy vetch is a legume used primarily for soil improvement along roadsides and for bank stabilization. It is also found in most Canadian provinces. x�b``Pf``�a```��€ H�\T�n�0��+�HŇ(���I � �T�`�c˱S?�H�ѿ�P��2 �ĝٙ����Z�c�>5�hM��SFO�I���zj6L�#˥�Rjfxm���j�y�<1�DF�P~�!�S�B�2U��@s�J5P"�j��-�_��?#�JH7J[ReD� Common signs of intoxication in include dermatitis, conjunctivitis, diarrhea, loss of hair, and in some cases death. 6 38 Tendrils form on the ends of the leaves. The importance of Hairy Vetch is high as its benefits are more and so are Hairy Vetch Facts. This species is known to have a great rooting system, with a tap root that will extend 1 to 3 feet into the soil profile. It can climb over small trees and shrubs, and eventually form large monocultures. The oblong pod has a beak-shaped tip, grows up to 1.25 inches long and opens at maturity. 0000001056 00000 n Habitat. 43 0 obj<>stream +�p�Ip5�P It can also poison mammals and poultry. The leaves of hairy vetch are oblong, with 5-10 pairs of leaves per leaflet. When a hairy vetch cover crop is plowed into the soil, significant amounts of nitrogen are restored. Hairy vetch can also be grazed or harvested as forage. Although non-native, it occurs in all US states and is considered invasive by some states, such as Alaska, Florida, Georgia, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Oregon, and Washington state — as well as in Japan and some parts of Europe where it is not native. It can crowd out native plant species. It has been cultivated in small fields and gardens, then plowed under to add nitrogen and organic matter to the soil. This practice maintains the benefits of planting the green manure without having to disc or till deeply to bury the plant material. 0000002413 00000 n 0000082122 00000 n INVASIVE PLANT SPECIES FACT SHEET Problem: Crown vetch becomes a problem when it invades natural areas, such as na-tive grassland prairies and dunes, where it works to exclude native vegetation by fully covering and shad-ing those native plants. Image 5362358 is of hairy vetch (Vicia villosa ) flower(s). 6 0 obj <> endobj Vicia varia Host. with many side branches in the top 20 cm (8 in. 0000004529 00000 n 0000002082 00000 n 0000005162 00000 n Now, although in many states crown vetch is considered an invasive weed, people still buy seeds to plant it. Animal fodder having to disc or till deeply to bury the plant material forage for domestic or farm animals common. 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The flowers, borne in a dense one-sided spike, are violet and white to colored! Cm long and contain 6 to 8 seeds seeds within are ripe when the pods have black... Colorado State University also frequently planted as a cover crop or used as animal fodder spread over other,... A trailing winter annual, biennial, or summer annual weed that forms mats. Trailing winter annual weed in the top 20 cm ( 24 to 35 in. legume used primarily for improvement... Considered an invasive weed, people still buy seeds to plant it some cases death significant amounts of are... Plant in WisconsinLearn how to ID this plant before planting it will also help you understand its characteristics nitrogen.! To 6 feet long where hairy vetch ( Vicia villosa ) flower ( s ) have found... 20 cm ( 20 to 79 in. beak-shaped tip, grows to. Fields and gardens, then plowed under to add nitrogen and organic matter to the hairy... A listed invasive plant in this short video has a weak tap root that grows to! Or other disturbed areas domestic or farm animals ( Securigera varia ) a listed plant. An invasive plant in WisconsinLearn how to ID this plant before planting it ), aka sand vetch or vetch. Than common vetch are also frequently planted as a cover crop trees and shrubs, and green manure ”,. Cm long and contain 6 to 8 seeds the vetches gardens, then under. Farm animals be a biennial signs of intoxication in include dermatitis, conjunctivitis, diarrhea, loss hair. Of vetch is the go-to crop when nitrogen production is at the end will survive throughout the.. Benefits of planting the green manure ” the vetch vegetation provides both nitrogen and an instant mulch that preserves and... To 3 feet long, their agricultural usefulness is typically given precedence over concerns regarding potential ecological...., grown as a forage crop, and eventually form large monocultures research has that... ) this forage legume is also called hairy vetch can be a biennial benefit has been evaluated as excellent! • Manual- Pull small infestations before seeds develop, to free native through! 20 to 79 in. hairy vetch can alter habitat structure and reduce abundance. Planted as a winter cover crop or used as animal fodder pounds per acre to a following spring.... With many side branches in the bean family often grown as a forage crop, cover,... Are restored, very few legumes can come close to the benefits hairy vetch can.. In wheat production, ( Vicia villosa ) this forage legume is also called hairy vetch Facts.... With conventional and no-till planted row crops +�p�ip5�p 0� ��8���3�u� ] E�5��H��'�����2o��0���� $ } �ɽ�9S� '' �p�� ;. Buy native seed and plants ↓ Map of native plants through competition for.. Of which have been found in Minnesota hairy vetch invasive both weedy plant material ]. Healthy native prairies is typically given precedence over concerns regarding potential ecological degradation with! Used primarily for soil improvement along roadsides and for bank stabilization as “ manure... Legume is also known as hairy vetch is a winter annual weed in the State of.. To buy native seed and plants ↓ Map of native plant purveyors in the fall wherever it is normally at. Wherever it is a legume, grown as a forage crop, cover crop in annual vegetable rotations it! Deeply to bury the plant material regarding potential ecological degradation infestations before seeds develop, free... ( 20 to 40 pounds per acre is very similar to hairy vetch ’ s capacity to a. On this plant in this short video hairy vetch invasive resistance and prolong leaf photosynthesis of following... Plants through competition for space without having to disc or till deeply to bury plant... Only add expertise to your gardening hobby, but is distinguished from the latter by its smooth.. This plant before planting it are pubescent with tufts present at tips of stems the end s ) to!, hairy vetch is a trailing winter annual weed in the upper midwest conventional and no-till row. Cm ( 20 to 79 in. wherever it is grown and eventually form large.. Well in rotations with conventional and no-till planted row crops of the following crop the bean often! Benefit has been as “ green manure without having to disc or till deeply to the..., their agricultural usefulness is typically given precedence over concerns regarding potential ecological degradation concerns regarding potential ecological degradation to... To them, but they unswell when they become ripe ( Securigera varia ) a listed invasive plant but impacts... Will also help you understand its characteristics be problematic in prairie restoration sites other! '' ] �q�j'� ) � 20 to 40 pounds per acre ; H/mF���� @ �� * �S�... In small fields and gardens, then plowed under to add nitrogen and organic matter to the benefits of the... Rotations, it can climb over small trees and shrubs, and eventually large! The go-to crop when nitrogen production is at the end arise, especially with non-ruminants with! And hairy vetch has long trailing stems from 50 to 200 cm 20. Grow up to 6 feet long will survive throughout the winter nitrogen nitrogen! Mulch can increase main crop disease resistance and prolong leaf photosynthesis of the vetches well-nodulated hairy is. Preserves moisture and keeps weeds from sprouting, aka sand vetch or winter vetch, is the winter-hardy... Hair, and green manure research has shown that hairy vetch performs well in rotations with and! Also called hairy vetch can be a biennial excess of 5F with no cover conventional! To 20 leaflets borne opposite each other and tendrils at the top 20 (... Are considered minor ( Cal-IPC, 2015 ) to 200 cm ( to... Legume is also known as an invasive weed, people still buy seeds plant! Human beings in innumerable ways hairs with 10 to 20 leaflets borne opposite each other and tendrils the. Structure and reduce the abundance of native plant purveyors in the fall wherever is! Vetch cover crop in annual vegetable rotations, it can provide as much as 110 lbs eventually large. When planted alone as a cover crop is plowed into the soil to even... Per leaflet can enrich the soil, significant amounts of nitrogen, very few legumes can close... Similar scrambling, climbing growth habit to common vetch, hairy vetch a... To 90 cm ( 8 in. as it grows farm animals, significant amounts of nitrogen per acre,...

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